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被使者的语法表现形式的原型特征解释
  • 摘要

    被使者的语法表现形式在文献中有两种不同的解释.一种是基于基础动词的及物性解释,另一种是基于被使者的受影响性解释.二者可以通过Dowty(1991)的原型特征予以整合.原由及物性假设解释的现象可以用基于原型特征的组合论元选择原则来解释,原由受影响性假设解释的现象可以用基于原型特征的聚合论元选择原则来解释.由此,理论解释的一致性得以保证.

  • 作者

    阚哲华 

  • 作者单位

    韶关学院

  • 刊期

    2008年1期 PKU CSSCI

  • 关键词

    被使者  语法表现形式  原型特征  论元选择 

参考文献
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  • [19] SUBJ(主语)和NOM(主格)经常通用;DO(直接宾语)、OBJ(宾语)和ACC(宾格)经常通用;IO(间接宾语)和DAT(与格)经常通用,典型的与格表示收受者(recipient);OBL(旁格)包括方位格(LOC)和工具格(INSTR)等.严格地说,主语、直接宾语和间接宾语(统称为terms)是纯句法关系,而旁格是语义关系(Kroeger,2004;Blake,2005:75).
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  • [21] Kroeger(2004)进一步指出,例(7a)和例(8a)表达的是一种操纵致使(manipulative causation),致使者采取某些直接的、物理的动作以强迫(coerce)被使者实施或终止某一动作;而例(7b)和例(8b)表达的是言语指示致使(verbal direcfive causation),致使者通过言语指示促使被使者实施或终止某一动作.前者中的被使者没有自主性,而后者中的被使者有一定的自主性.Kroeger的说法与Strozer基本一致.
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  • [28] Alsina(1992)将致使结构表述为:CAUSE《arg(PRED《arg,arg,…》)》.从论元配置和数目来看,Alsina认为,基础动词为不及物动词的致使句相当于一个二价及物动词构成的简单述谓句;基础动词为及物动词的致使句相当于一个三价双及物动词构成的简单述谓句.也就是说,不及物动词致使句对应于一个二价述谓结构,及物动词致使句对应于一个三价述谓结构(AMna,1992).我们同意 Alsina的观点,并据此认为Dowty的论元选择原则及推论可以移植过来解释致使句中论元的语法表现形式.
  • [29] Hacera,hacerb和hacec大致分别对应于英语中的make,have和let.试比较:I made him do it with force.I had him do it by gently persuading him to.I let him go.*I had him do it with force.*I let him go,with,force/by gently persuading him to.
  • [30] [+受影响]不能将DO与IO被使者区分开来.不过,许多学者(Garcla,1975;Strozer,1976)认为西班牙语的IO被使者比DO被使者更具积极参与性(active participation).积极参与性可视为Dowry(1991)的自主性的一个子范畴,而自主性又是一个具有"自控度"的原型施事特征.因此,我们不妨用[+/-自主]来刻画DO和10之间的语义差别:10具有自主性,DO不具有自主性.
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  • [33] 程工. 评《题元原型角色与论元选择》. 国外语言学, 1995,03
  • [34] (*…)表示括号里面的文字不能出现,否则句子不合法.
  • [35] Aissen,J.L. The Syntax of Causative Constructions. New York:Garland, 1979
  • [36] Aissen,J.L;D.Per]mutter. Clause reduction in Spanish. Chicago,IL:the University of chicago Press, 1983
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